Colorectal and GI Cancers

Colorectal Cancer Risk, Prognosis, Diagnosis and Staging

Each year, an estimated 102,480 colon and 40,340 rectal cancers are diagnosed in the United States.

What is Colorectal Cancer?

Colorectal cancer is a disease in which cancerous (malignant) cells form in the tissues of the colon or the rectum. Both the colon and rectum are part of the body's digestive or gastrointestinal (GI) system; colon and rectal cancers are grouped together because the colorectal family of cancers has many features in common.

Risk Factors and Symptoms

Risk factors of colorectal cancer may include:

What are symptoms of colorectal cancer?

Colorectal cancer symptoms and warning signs may include the following:

Other conditions may also cause the same symptoms. Ask your doctor if you have any concerns.

You should consult a doctor if any of the following problems also occur:

Diagnosing and Staging

Tests that examine the colon, rectum, rectal tissue, blood, and stool are used to detect and diagnose this kind of cancer.

The following tests and procedures may be used:

  • Physical exam and history
  • Fecal occult blood test
  • Digital rectal exam
  • Barium enema
  • Sigmoidoscopy
  • Colonoscopy
  • Biopsy

A colorectal screening can detect cancer at an earlier stage when it may be more treatable.

It is recommended that adults over age 50 are screened regularly. Screenings may include any of the tests listed above.

Stages of Colorectal Cancer

After cancer has been diagnosed, surgery may be performed to find out if cancer cells have spread from within the colon or rectum to other parts of the body (metastasized). This process is called staging.

If, after surgery, it is determined that the disease has spread, the following tests may be performed to determine the stage of cancer:

  • CT scan
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment.

Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph system or the blood system to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis.

The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor.

For example, if the cells spread to the liver, the cancer cells in the liver are actually colorectal cancer cells. The disease is metastatic colorectal cancer, not liver cancer.

There are three ways colorectal cancer can spread in the body:

More About Colorectal Cancer

Learn more about colon and rectal cancer from the National Cancer Institute.

Schedule an Appointment at UPMC CancerCenter

There are two ways to schedule an appointment at UPMC CancerCenter:

  1. Fill out the UPMC Request an Appointment Form online.
  2. Call 412-647-2811.

If you have an immediate medical need, please call 911 or go to an emergency room for treatment.