Liver Metastasis, Cholangiocarcinoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Prognosis, and Stages
An estimated 24,000 new liver cancer cases are diagnosed every year in the United States.
What are Liver Cancers?
There are two main types of primary liver cancers: hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (cancer of the bile ducts).
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a disease where cancer cells form in the tissues of the liver. It's the most common type of liver cancer and affects an estimated 24,000 people in the United States each year.
Cholangiocarcinoma (Bile Duct Cancer)
Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare cancer that occurs in ducts that drain bile from the liver to the small intestine. Between 2,000 and 3,000 people are diagnosed each year in the US.
Liver metastasis is cancer that started in another part of the body and has spread to the liver.
Metastasis is often referred to as a secondary cancer. The secondary cancer is the same type of cancer as the primary cancer.
For example, if colorectal cancer spreads to the liver, the cancer cells in the liver are actually colorectal cancer cells. The disease is metastatic colorectal cancer, not liver cancer.
The most common cancers that spread to the liver include:
There are three ways cancer can spread in the body:
- Through tissue – cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
- Through the lymph system – cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
- Through the blood – cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.
Risk Factors and Symptoms
Risk factors and warning signs are similar for each type of liver cancer.
Risk factors may include:
- Family history
- Having cirrhosis
- Having hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C
Symptoms of liver cancer, particularly in the early stages, are often not acute or intense. When they do appear, liver cancer is often advanced.
Symptoms and warning signs may include the following:
- Hard lump on the right side below the rib cage
- Loss of appetite
- Pain near the right shoulder blade
- Pain or swelling in the upper abdomen
- Unexplained weight loss
Diagnosing Liver Cancer
Tests and procedures to diagnose liver cancer include:
More About Liver Cancer