Prostate and Urologic Cancer Prognosis, Signs, Causes, and Diagnosis
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. Each year, approximately 192,280 new prostate cancers were diagnosed in the United States.
What is Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor of the prostate gland, a walnut-sized organ located in front of a man's rectum and below the bladder.
Factors that may increase prostate cancer risk:
- Age — The risk for prostate cancer increases with age, with men over age 65 at highest risk.
- Family history — Studies show that a man's risk for prostate cancer increases if a close male relative has the disease.
- Race — African-American men are twice as likely to be diagnosed as white men.
- Specific genetic changes — Researchers have found that changes in parts of certain chromosomes seem to be connected with an increased risk for prostate cancer.
Diagnosis and Staging
Diagnosing and determining the stage and type of urologic cancers is essential for developing effective treatment strategies.
Patient assessments may include a digital rectal exam and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test. While these tests may indicate a problem with the prostate, further testing to detect cancer also may include a transrectal ultrasound and transrectal biopsy.
Other diagnostic tests may include:
- Computed tomography (CT) scans
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans
Learn more about diagnostic tests used to diagnose and stage urologic cancers:
More about Prostate Cancer