Prostate and Urologic Cancers

Prostate Cancer Chemotherapy Oncology Services

Medical oncologists specializing in prostate and urologic cancers offer a full range of biologic targeted therapies and chemotherapy for all types and stages of cancer.

Physicians will determine if a person has low-, intermediate-, or high-risk prostate cancer by evaluating the size of the prostate, the PSA, and the results of the biopsy.

Low-risk Prostate Cancer

People are diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer if their tumor stage is T1 or if they have a Gleason score of 6 or less.

If active surveillance is chosen, patients must follow up with their urologist for regular checkups and tests that may include:

If tests show the cancer is growing or becoming more aggressive, physicians may recommend surgery, radiation therapy, or other treatments.

Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer

Patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer may either undergo surgery or radiation.

If radiation is chosen, patients also will be treated with hormonal therapy for a limited amount of time, typically about six months.

High-risk Prostate Cancer

High-risk cancers are those that cannot be cured with either surgery or radiation alone.

In a man who has high-risk disease at diagnosis (tumor stage T3, Gleason score of 8 or greater, or PSA of 20 or greater), the standard treatment is the combination of radiation and hormone therapy for a longer period of time, usually two years.

Advanced Prostate Cancer

Some prostate cancers recur and metastasize (spread to other parts of the body) and cannot be cured; but in many cases, even advanced prostate cancers can be successfully controlled for years.

Treatment of advanced prostate cancer employs a number of different systemic modalities — treatment that attacks the cancer at all sites.

The different systemic therapies include:

Hormone Therapy

Hormone therapy is the mainstay of systemic treatment at several stages of prostate cancer.

In addition to already well-established hormonal therapies, a number of new agents are currently under development to further improve hormonal treatment for prostate cancer.


Depending on the type and stage of the cancer, chemotherapy may be:

Medical oncologists specializing in prostate and urologic cancers offer a full range of chemotherapy and biologic targeted therapies for all types and stages of cancer.

Investigational Therapy

People have access to the latest investigational therapies and clinical trials through our collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI), western Pennsylvania's only National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center.

When appropriate, people with prostate cancer are placed on a Clinical Pathways – a disease-specific treatment strategy developed by physicians – to ensure that all patients receive the same evidence-based care.

Each pathway combines innovative and promising clinical trial options with the best standard of care therapies. Ongoing review by the clinical team ensures that each pathway remains the best and most effective treatment option available.